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Arch Craniofac Surg > Volume 13(2); 2012 > Article
Archives of Craniofacial Surgery 2012;13(2):85-94.
Current Status of Face Transplantation: Where Do We Stand in Korea?.
Jong Won Hong, Young Seok Kim, In Sik Yun, Dong Won Lee, Won Jai Lee, Tai Suk Roh, Dae Hyun Lew, Yong Oock Kim, Dong Kyun Rah, Kwan Chul Tark, Beyoung Yun Park
Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Institute for Human Tissue Restoration, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
The world's first face transplantation was performed in France, in 2005. Since then, 21 cases of face transplantation have been performed. Face transplantation is one of the most prominent part of composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA) along with hand transplantation. Since these fields are not deal with life-saving organs, there are many arguments about immunosuppression therapy. Recent paradigm of face transplantation shows that surgical ranges are expanded from partial face transplantation to full face transplantation. Most immunosuppression protocols are triple therapy, which consists of tacrolimus (FK-506), mycophenolate mofetil and prednisolone. Anatomical researches, immunosuppression, and immunotolerance take great parts in the researches of CTA. The medical fields directly related to face transplantation are microsurgery, immunology, and transplantation. Nowadays, each field is performed widely. Therefore people, even medical teams think face transplantation could be easily realized, sooner or later. But there are lots of things that should be prepared for not only practice and immunosuppression therapy but also for the cooperation with relevant fields. That's the reason why only 21 cases of face transplantation have been done, while more than 70 cases of hand transplantation have been done in the past years. Especially in Korea, brain death patients are not enough even for organ transplantation and furthermore there are some troubles in taking part in the society of transplantation. Face transplantation has lots of problems concerning variable medical fields, administration, society, ethics, and laws. Therefore, for the realization of face transplantation in Korea, not only medical skills but also political powers are needed.
Keywords: Face transplantation; Transplantation; Immunosuppression; Immune tolerance
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